public class Arrays extends Object
The methods in this class all throw a NullPointerException
, if the specified array reference is null, except
where noted.
The documentation for the methods contained in this class includes briefs description of the implementations.
Such descriptions should be regarded as implementation notes, rather than parts of the specification.
Implementors should feel free to substitute other algorithms, so long as the specification itself is adhered to. (For
example, the algorithm used by sort(Object[])
does not have to be a MergeSort, but it does have to be
stable.)
This class is a member of the Java Collections Framework.
Modifier and Type  Method and Description 

static <T> List<T> 
asList(T... a)
Returns a fixedsize list backed by the specified array.

static int 
binarySearch(byte[] a,
byte key)
Searches the specified array of bytes for the specified value using the binary search algorithm.

static int 
binarySearch(byte[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
byte key)
Searches a range of the specified array of bytes for the specified value using the binary search algorithm.

static int 
binarySearch(char[] a,
char key)
Searches the specified array of chars for the specified value using the binary search algorithm.

static int 
binarySearch(char[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
char key)
Searches a range of the specified array of chars for the specified value using the binary search algorithm.

static int 
binarySearch(double[] a,
double key)
Searches the specified array of doubles for the specified value using the binary search algorithm.

static int 
binarySearch(double[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
double key)
Searches a range of the specified array of doubles for the specified value using the binary search algorithm.

static int 
binarySearch(float[] a,
float key)
Searches the specified array of floats for the specified value using the binary search algorithm.

static int 
binarySearch(float[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
float key)
Searches a range of the specified array of floats for the specified value using the binary search algorithm.

static int 
binarySearch(int[] a,
int key)
Searches the specified array of ints for the specified value using the binary search algorithm.

static int 
binarySearch(int[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
int key)
Searches a range of the specified array of ints for the specified value using the binary search algorithm.

static int 
binarySearch(long[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
long key)
Searches a range of the specified array of longs for the specified value using the binary search algorithm.

static int 
binarySearch(long[] a,
long key)
Searches the specified array of longs for the specified value using the binary search algorithm.

static int 
binarySearch(Object[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
Object key)
Searches a range of the specified array for the specified object using the binary search algorithm.

static int 
binarySearch(Object[] a,
Object key)
Searches the specified array for the specified object using the binary search algorithm.

static int 
binarySearch(short[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
short key)
Searches a range of the specified array of shorts for the specified value using the binary search algorithm.

static int 
binarySearch(short[] a,
short key)
Searches the specified array of shorts for the specified value using the binary search algorithm.

static <T> int 
binarySearch(T[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
T key,
Comparator<? super T> c)
Searches a range of the specified array for the specified object using the binary search algorithm.

static <T> int 
binarySearch(T[] a,
T key,
Comparator<? super T> c)
Searches the specified array for the specified object using the binary search algorithm.

static boolean[] 
copyOf(boolean[] original,
int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with false (if necessary) so the copy has the
specified length.

static byte[] 
copyOf(byte[] original,
int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with zeros (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length.

static char[] 
copyOf(char[] original,
int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with null characters (if necessary) so the copy has the
specified length.

static double[] 
copyOf(double[] original,
int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with zeros (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length.

static float[] 
copyOf(float[] original,
int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with zeros (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length.

static int[] 
copyOf(int[] original,
int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with zeros (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length.

static long[] 
copyOf(long[] original,
int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with zeros (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length.

static short[] 
copyOf(short[] original,
int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with zeros (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length.

static <T> T[] 
copyOf(T[] original,
int newLength)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with nulls (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length.

static <T,U> T[] 
copyOf(U[] original,
int newLength,
Class<? extends T[]> newType)
Copies the specified array, truncating or padding with nulls (if necessary) so the copy has the specified length.

static boolean[] 
copyOfRange(boolean[] original,
int from,
int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array.

static byte[] 
copyOfRange(byte[] original,
int from,
int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array.

static char[] 
copyOfRange(char[] original,
int from,
int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array.

static double[] 
copyOfRange(double[] original,
int from,
int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array.

static float[] 
copyOfRange(float[] original,
int from,
int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array.

static int[] 
copyOfRange(int[] original,
int from,
int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array.

static long[] 
copyOfRange(long[] original,
int from,
int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array.

static short[] 
copyOfRange(short[] original,
int from,
int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array.

static <T> T[] 
copyOfRange(T[] original,
int from,
int to)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array.

static <T,U> T[] 
copyOfRange(U[] original,
int from,
int to,
Class<? extends T[]> newType)
Copies the specified range of the specified array into a new array.

static boolean 
deepEquals(Object[] a1,
Object[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays are deeply equal to one another.

static int 
deepHashCode(Object[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the "deep contents" of the specified array.

static String 
deepToString(Object[] a)
Returns a string representation of the "deep contents" of the specified array.

static boolean 
equals(boolean[] a,
boolean[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of booleans are equal to one another.

static boolean 
equals(byte[] a,
byte[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of bytes are equal to one another.

static boolean 
equals(char[] a,
char[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of chars are equal to one another.

static boolean 
equals(double[] a,
double[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of doubles are equal to one another.

static boolean 
equals(float[] a,
float[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of floats are equal to one another.

static boolean 
equals(int[] a,
int[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of ints are equal to one another.

static boolean 
equals(long[] a,
long[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of longs are equal to one another.

static boolean 
equals(Object[] a,
Object[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of Objects are equal to one another.

static boolean 
equals(short[] a,
short[] a2)
Returns true if the two specified arrays of shorts are equal to one another.

static void 
fill(boolean[] a,
boolean val)
Assigns the specified boolean value to each element of the specified array of booleans.

static void 
fill(boolean[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
boolean val)
Assigns the specified boolean value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of booleans.

static void 
fill(byte[] a,
byte val)
Assigns the specified byte value to each element of the specified array of bytes.

static void 
fill(byte[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
byte val)
Assigns the specified byte value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of bytes.

static void 
fill(char[] a,
char val)
Assigns the specified char value to each element of the specified array of chars.

static void 
fill(char[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
char val)
Assigns the specified char value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of chars.

static void 
fill(double[] a,
double val)
Assigns the specified double value to each element of the specified array of doubles.

static void 
fill(double[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
double val)
Assigns the specified double value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of doubles.

static void 
fill(float[] a,
float val)
Assigns the specified float value to each element of the specified array of floats.

static void 
fill(float[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
float val)
Assigns the specified float value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of floats.

static void 
fill(int[] a,
int val)
Assigns the specified int value to each element of the specified array of ints.

static void 
fill(int[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
int val)
Assigns the specified int value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of ints.

static void 
fill(long[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
long val)
Assigns the specified long value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of longs.

static void 
fill(long[] a,
long val)
Assigns the specified long value to each element of the specified array of longs.

static void 
fill(Object[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
Object val)
Assigns the specified Object reference to each element of the specified range of the specified array of Objects.

static void 
fill(Object[] a,
Object val)
Assigns the specified Object reference to each element of the specified array of Objects.

static void 
fill(short[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
short val)
Assigns the specified short value to each element of the specified range of the specified array of shorts.

static void 
fill(short[] a,
short val)
Assigns the specified short value to each element of the specified array of shorts.

static int 
hashCode(boolean[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array.

static int 
hashCode(byte[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array.

static int 
hashCode(char[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array.

static int 
hashCode(double[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array.

static int 
hashCode(float[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array.

static int 
hashCode(int[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array.

static int 
hashCode(long[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array.

static int 
hashCode(Object[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array.

static int 
hashCode(short[] a)
Returns a hash code based on the contents of the specified array.

static void 
sort(byte[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.

static void 
sort(byte[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order.

static void 
sort(char[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.

static void 
sort(char[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order.

static void 
sort(double[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.

static void 
sort(double[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order.

static void 
sort(float[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.

static void 
sort(float[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order.

static void 
sort(int[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.

static void 
sort(int[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order.

static void 
sort(long[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.

static void 
sort(long[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order.

static void 
sort(Object[] a)
Sorts the specified array of objects into ascending order, according to the natural
ordering of its elements.

static void 
sort(Object[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the specified array of objects into ascending order, according to the
natural ordering of its elements.

static void 
sort(short[] a)
Sorts the specified array into ascending numerical order.

static void 
sort(short[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex)
Sorts the specified range of the array into ascending order.

static <T> void 
sort(T[] a,
Comparator<? super T> c)
Sorts the specified array of objects according to the order induced by the specified comparator.

static <T> void 
sort(T[] a,
int fromIndex,
int toIndex,
Comparator<? super T> c)
Sorts the specified range of the specified array of objects according to the order induced by the specified
comparator.

static String 
toString(boolean[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array.

static String 
toString(byte[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array.

static String 
toString(char[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array.

static String 
toString(double[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array.

static String 
toString(float[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array.

static String 
toString(int[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array.

static String 
toString(long[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array.

static String 
toString(Object[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array.

static String 
toString(short[] a)
Returns a string representation of the contents of the specified array.

@SafeVarargs public static <T> List<T> asList(T... a)
Collection.toArray()
. The returned list is serializable and implements RandomAccess
.
This method also provides a convenient way to create a fixedsize list initialized to contain several elements:
List<String> stooges = Arrays.asList("Larry", "Moe", "Curly");
a
 the array by which the list will be backedpublic static int binarySearch(byte[] a, byte key)
sort(byte[])
method) prior to making this call. If it is not sorted, the results
are undefined. If the array contains multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which one
will be found.a
 the array to be searchedkey
 the value to be searched forpublic static int binarySearch(byte[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, byte key)
sort(byte[], int, int)
method) prior to making this call. If it is not
sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains multiple elements with the specified value, there is no
guarantee which one will be found.a
 the array to be searchedfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be searchedtoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searchedkey
 the value to be searched forIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndex
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length
public static int binarySearch(char[] a, char key)
sort(char[])
method) prior to making this call. If it is not sorted, the results
are undefined. If the array contains multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which one
will be found.a
 the array to be searchedkey
 the value to be searched forpublic static int binarySearch(char[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, char key)
sort(char[], int, int)
method) prior to making this call. If it is not
sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains multiple elements with the specified value, there is no
guarantee which one will be found.a
 the array to be searchedfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be searchedtoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searchedkey
 the value to be searched forIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndex
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length
public static int binarySearch(double[] a, double key)
sort(double[])
method) prior to making this call. If it is not sorted, the results
are undefined. If the array contains multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which one
will be found. This method considers all NaN values to be equivalent and equal.a
 the array to be searchedkey
 the value to be searched forpublic static int binarySearch(double[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, double key)
sort(double[], int, int)
method) prior to making this call. If it is not
sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains multiple elements with the specified value, there is no
guarantee which one will be found. This method considers all NaN values to be equivalent and equal.a
 the array to be searchedfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be searchedtoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searchedkey
 the value to be searched forIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndex
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length
public static int binarySearch(float[] a, float key)
sort(float[])
method) prior to making this call. If it is not sorted, the results
are undefined. If the array contains multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which one
will be found. This method considers all NaN values to be equivalent and equal.a
 the array to be searchedkey
 the value to be searched forpublic static int binarySearch(float[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, float key)
sort(float[], int, int)
method) prior to making this call. If it is not
sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains multiple elements with the specified value, there is no
guarantee which one will be found. This method considers all NaN values to be equivalent and equal.a
 the array to be searchedfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be searchedtoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searchedkey
 the value to be searched forIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndex
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length
public static int binarySearch(int[] a, int key)
sort(int[])
method) prior to making this call. If it is not sorted, the results are
undefined. If the array contains multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which one will
be found.a
 the array to be searchedkey
 the value to be searched forpublic static int binarySearch(int[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, int key)
sort(int[], int, int)
method) prior to making this call. If it is not
sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains multiple elements with the specified value, there is no
guarantee which one will be found.a
 the array to be searchedfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be searchedtoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searchedkey
 the value to be searched forIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndex
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length
public static int binarySearch(long[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, long key)
sort(long[], int, int)
method) prior to making this call. If it is not
sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains multiple elements with the specified value, there is no
guarantee which one will be found.a
 the array to be searchedfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be searchedtoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searchedkey
 the value to be searched forIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndex
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length
public static int binarySearch(long[] a, long key)
sort(long[])
method) prior to making this call. If it is not sorted, the results
are undefined. If the array contains multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which one
will be found.a
 the array to be searchedkey
 the value to be searched forpublic static int binarySearch(Object[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, Object key)
sort(Object[], int, int)
method) prior to making this call. If it is not sorted, the results are
undefined. (If the range contains elements that are not mutually comparable (for example, strings and integers),
it cannot be sorted according to the natural ordering of its elements, hence results are undefined.) If
the range contains multiple elements equal to the specified object, there is no guarantee which one will be
found.a
 the array to be searchedfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be searchedtoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searchedkey
 the value to be searched forClassCastException
 if the search key is not comparable to the elements of the array within the specified range.IllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndex
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length
public static int binarySearch(Object[] a, Object key)
sort(Object[])
method) prior to making this call. If it is not sorted, the results are undefined. (If
the array contains elements that are not mutually comparable (for example, strings and integers), it
cannot be sorted according to the natural ordering of its elements, hence results are undefined.) If the
array contains multiple elements equal to the specified object, there is no guarantee which one will be found.a
 the array to be searchedkey
 the value to be searched forClassCastException
 if the search key is not comparable to the elements of the array.public static int binarySearch(short[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, short key)
sort(short[], int, int)
method) prior to making this call. If it is not
sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains multiple elements with the specified value, there is no
guarantee which one will be found.a
 the array to be searchedfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be searchedtoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searchedkey
 the value to be searched forIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndex
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length
public static int binarySearch(short[] a, short key)
sort(short[])
method) prior to making this call. If it is not sorted, the results
are undefined. If the array contains multiple elements with the specified value, there is no guarantee which one
will be found.a
 the array to be searchedkey
 the value to be searched forpublic static <T> int binarySearch(T[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, T key, @Nullable Comparator<? super T> c)
sort(T[], int, int, Comparator)
method) prior to making this call.
If it is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the range contains multiple elements equal to the specified
object, there is no guarantee which one will be found.a
 the array to be searchedfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be searchedtoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be searchedkey
 the value to be searched forc
 the comparator by which the array is ordered. A null value indicates that the elements'
natural ordering should be used.ClassCastException
 if the range contains elements that are not mutually comparable using the specified
comparator, or the search key is not comparable to the elements in the range using this comparator.IllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndex
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.length
public static <T> int binarySearch(T[] a, T key, @Nullable Comparator<? super T> c)
sort(T[], Comparator)
method) prior to making this call. If it is not sorted, the results are undefined. If the
array contains multiple elements equal to the specified object, there is no guarantee which one will be found.a
 the array to be searchedkey
 the value to be searched forc
 the comparator by which the array is ordered. A null value indicates that the elements'
natural ordering should be used.ClassCastException
 if the array contains elements that are not mutually comparable using the specified
comparator, or the search key is not comparable to the elements of the array using this comparator.public static boolean[] copyOf(boolean[] original, int newLength)
original
 the array to be copiednewLength
 the length of the copy to be returnedNegativeArraySizeException
 if newLength is negativeNullPointerException
 if original is nullpublic static byte[] copyOf(byte[] original, int newLength)
original
 the array to be copiednewLength
 the length of the copy to be returnedNegativeArraySizeException
 if newLength is negativeNullPointerException
 if original is nullpublic static char[] copyOf(char[] original, int newLength)
original
 the array to be copiednewLength
 the length of the copy to be returnedNegativeArraySizeException
 if newLength is negativeNullPointerException
 if original is nullpublic static double[] copyOf(double[] original, int newLength)
original
 the array to be copiednewLength
 the length of the copy to be returnedNegativeArraySizeException
 if newLength is negativeNullPointerException
 if original is nullpublic static float[] copyOf(float[] original, int newLength)
original
 the array to be copiednewLength
 the length of the copy to be returnedNegativeArraySizeException
 if newLength is negativeNullPointerException
 if original is nullpublic static int[] copyOf(int[] original, int newLength)
original
 the array to be copiednewLength
 the length of the copy to be returnedNegativeArraySizeException
 if newLength is negativeNullPointerException
 if original is nullpublic static long[] copyOf(long[] original, int newLength)
original
 the array to be copiednewLength
 the length of the copy to be returnedNegativeArraySizeException
 if newLength is negativeNullPointerException
 if original is nullpublic static short[] copyOf(short[] original, int newLength)
original
 the array to be copiednewLength
 the length of the copy to be returnedNegativeArraySizeException
 if newLength is negativeNullPointerException
 if original is nullpublic static <T> T[] copyOf(T[] original, int newLength)
original
 the array to be copiednewLength
 the length of the copy to be returnedNegativeArraySizeException
 if newLength is negativeNullPointerException
 if original is nullpublic static <T,U> T[] copyOf(U[] original, int newLength, Class<? extends T[]> newType)
original
 the array to be copiednewLength
 the length of the copy to be returnednewType
 the class of the copy to be returnedNegativeArraySizeException
 if newLength is negativeNullPointerException
 if original is nullArrayStoreException
 if an element copied from original is not of a runtime type that can be stored in an array
of class newTypepublic static boolean[] copyOfRange(boolean[] original, int from, int to)
original
 the array from which a range is to be copiedfrom
 the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusiveto
 the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive. (This index may lie outside the array.)ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if from < 0
or from > original.length
IllegalArgumentException
 if from > toNullPointerException
 if original is nullpublic static byte[] copyOfRange(byte[] original, int from, int to)
original
 the array from which a range is to be copiedfrom
 the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusiveto
 the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive. (This index may lie outside the array.)ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if from < 0
or from > original.length
IllegalArgumentException
 if from > toNullPointerException
 if original is nullpublic static char[] copyOfRange(char[] original, int from, int to)
original
 the array from which a range is to be copiedfrom
 the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusiveto
 the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive. (This index may lie outside the array.)ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if from < 0
or from > original.length
IllegalArgumentException
 if from > toNullPointerException
 if original is nullpublic static double[] copyOfRange(double[] original, int from, int to)
original
 the array from which a range is to be copiedfrom
 the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusiveto
 the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive. (This index may lie outside the array.)ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if from < 0
or from > original.length
IllegalArgumentException
 if from > toNullPointerException
 if original is nullpublic static float[] copyOfRange(float[] original, int from, int to)
original
 the array from which a range is to be copiedfrom
 the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusiveto
 the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive. (This index may lie outside the array.)ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if from < 0
or from > original.length
IllegalArgumentException
 if from > toNullPointerException
 if original is nullpublic static int[] copyOfRange(int[] original, int from, int to)
original
 the array from which a range is to be copiedfrom
 the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusiveto
 the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive. (This index may lie outside the array.)ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if from < 0
or from > original.length
IllegalArgumentException
 if from > toNullPointerException
 if original is nullpublic static long[] copyOfRange(long[] original, int from, int to)
original
 the array from which a range is to be copiedfrom
 the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusiveto
 the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive. (This index may lie outside the array.)ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if from < 0
or from > original.length
IllegalArgumentException
 if from > toNullPointerException
 if original is nullpublic static short[] copyOfRange(short[] original, int from, int to)
original
 the array from which a range is to be copiedfrom
 the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusiveto
 the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive. (This index may lie outside the array.)ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if from < 0
or from > original.length
IllegalArgumentException
 if from > toNullPointerException
 if original is nullpublic static <T> T[] copyOfRange(T[] original, int from, int to)
original
 the array from which a range is to be copiedfrom
 the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusiveto
 the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive. (This index may lie outside the array.)ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if from < 0
or from > original.length
IllegalArgumentException
 if from > toNullPointerException
 if original is nullpublic static <T,U> T[] copyOfRange(U[] original, int from, int to, Class<? extends T[]> newType)
original
 the array from which a range is to be copiedfrom
 the initial index of the range to be copied, inclusiveto
 the final index of the range to be copied, exclusive. (This index may lie outside the array.)newType
 the class of the copy to be returnedArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if from < 0
or from > original.length
IllegalArgumentException
 if from > toNullPointerException
 if original is nullArrayStoreException
 if an element copied from original is not of a runtime type that can be stored in an array
of class newTypepublic static boolean deepEquals(Object[] a1, Object[] a2)
equals(Object[],Object[])
method, this method is appropriate for use with nested arrays of arbitrary
depth.
Two array references are considered deeply equal if both are null, or if they refer to arrays that contain the same number of elements and all corresponding pairs of elements in the two arrays are deeply equal.
Two possibly null elements e1 and e2 are deeply equal if any of the following conditions hold:
If either of the specified arrays contain themselves as elements either directly or indirectly through one or more levels of arrays, the behavior of this method is undefined.
a1
 one array to be tested for equalitya2
 the other array to be tested for equalityequals(Object[],Object[])
,
Objects.deepEquals(Object, Object)
public static int deepHashCode(Object[] a)
For any two arrays a and b such that Arrays.deepEquals(a, b), it is also the case that Arrays.deepHashCode(a) == Arrays.deepHashCode(b).
The computation of the value returned by this method is similar to that of the value returned by
List.hashCode()
on a list containing the same elements as a in the same order, with one
difference: If an element e of a is itself an array, its hash code is computed not by calling
e.hashCode(), but as by calling the appropriate overloading of Arrays.hashCode(e) if e
is an array of a primitive type, or as by calling Arrays.deepHashCode(e) recursively if e is an
array of a reference type. If a is null, this method returns 0.
a
 the array whose deepcontentbased hash code to computehashCode(Object[])
public static String deepToString(Object[] a)
The string representation consists of a list of the array's elements, enclosed in square brackets ("[]"). Adjacent elements are separated by the characters ", " (a comma followed by a space). Elements are converted to strings as by String.valueOf(Object), unless they are themselves arrays.
If an element e is an array of a primitive type, it is converted to a string as by invoking the appropriate overloading of Arrays.toString(e). If an element e is an array of a reference type, it is converted to a string as by invoking this method recursively.
To avoid infinite recursion, if the specified array contains itself as an element, or contains an indirect reference to itself through one or more levels of arrays, the selfreference is converted to the string "[...]". For example, an array containing only a reference to itself would be rendered as "[[...]]".
This method returns "null" if the specified array is null.
a
 the array whose string representation to returntoString(Object[])
public static boolean equals(boolean[] a, boolean[] a2)
a
 one array to be tested for equalitya2
 the other array to be tested for equalitypublic static boolean equals(byte[] a, byte[] a2)
a
 one array to be tested for equalitya2
 the other array to be tested for equalitypublic static boolean equals(char[] a, char[] a2)
a
 one array to be tested for equalitya2
 the other array to be tested for equalitypublic static boolean equals(double[] a, double[] a2)
Two doubles d1 and d2 are considered equal if:
new Double(d1).equals(new Double(d2))(Unlike the == operator, this method considers NaN equals to itself, and 0.0d unequal to 0.0d.)
a
 one array to be tested for equalitya2
 the other array to be tested for equalityDouble.equals(Object)
public static boolean equals(float[] a, float[] a2)
Two floats f1 and f2 are considered equal if:
new Float(f1).equals(new Float(f2))(Unlike the == operator, this method considers NaN equals to itself, and 0.0f unequal to 0.0f.)
a
 one array to be tested for equalitya2
 the other array to be tested for equalityFloat.equals(Object)
public static boolean equals(int[] a, int[] a2)
a
 one array to be tested for equalitya2
 the other array to be tested for equalitypublic static boolean equals(long[] a, long[] a2)
a
 one array to be tested for equalitya2
 the other array to be tested for equalitypublic static boolean equals(Object[] a, Object[] a2)
a
 one array to be tested for equalitya2
 the other array to be tested for equalitypublic static boolean equals(short[] a, short[] a2)
a
 one array to be tested for equalitya2
 the other array to be tested for equalitypublic static void fill(boolean[] a, boolean val)
a
 the array to be filledval
 the value to be stored in all elements of the arraypublic static void fill(boolean[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, boolean val)
a
 the array to be filledfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be filled with the specified valuetoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be filled with the specified valueval
 the value to be stored in all elements of the arrayIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndexArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.lengthpublic static void fill(byte[] a, byte val)
a
 the array to be filledval
 the value to be stored in all elements of the arraypublic static void fill(byte[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, byte val)
a
 the array to be filledfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be filled with the specified valuetoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be filled with the specified valueval
 the value to be stored in all elements of the arrayIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndexArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.lengthpublic static void fill(char[] a, char val)
a
 the array to be filledval
 the value to be stored in all elements of the arraypublic static void fill(char[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, char val)
a
 the array to be filledfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be filled with the specified valuetoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be filled with the specified valueval
 the value to be stored in all elements of the arrayIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndexArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.lengthpublic static void fill(double[] a, double val)
a
 the array to be filledval
 the value to be stored in all elements of the arraypublic static void fill(double[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, double val)
a
 the array to be filledfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be filled with the specified valuetoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be filled with the specified valueval
 the value to be stored in all elements of the arrayIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndexArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.lengthpublic static void fill(float[] a, float val)
a
 the array to be filledval
 the value to be stored in all elements of the arraypublic static void fill(float[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, float val)
a
 the array to be filledfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be filled with the specified valuetoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be filled with the specified valueval
 the value to be stored in all elements of the arrayIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndexArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.lengthpublic static void fill(int[] a, int val)
a
 the array to be filledval
 the value to be stored in all elements of the arraypublic static void fill(int[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, int val)
a
 the array to be filledfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be filled with the specified valuetoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be filled with the specified valueval
 the value to be stored in all elements of the arrayIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndexArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.lengthpublic static void fill(long[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, long val)
a
 the array to be filledfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be filled with the specified valuetoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be filled with the specified valueval
 the value to be stored in all elements of the arrayIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndexArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.lengthpublic static void fill(long[] a, long val)
a
 the array to be filledval
 the value to be stored in all elements of the arraypublic static void fill(Object[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, Object val)
a
 the array to be filledfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be filled with the specified valuetoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be filled with the specified valueval
 the value to be stored in all elements of the arrayIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndexArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.lengthArrayStoreException
 if the specified value is not of a runtime type that can be stored in the specified arraypublic static void fill(Object[] a, Object val)
a
 the array to be filledval
 the value to be stored in all elements of the arrayArrayStoreException
 if the specified value is not of a runtime type that can be stored in the specified arraypublic static void fill(short[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, short val)
a
 the array to be filledfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be filled with the specified valuetoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be filled with the specified valueval
 the value to be stored in all elements of the arrayIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndexArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0 or toIndex > a.lengthpublic static void fill(short[] a, short val)
a
 the array to be filledval
 the value to be stored in all elements of the arraypublic static int hashCode(boolean[] a)
The value returned by this method is the same value that would be obtained by invoking the hashCode
method on a List
containing a sequence of Boolean
instances representing the
elements of a in the same order. If a is null, this method returns 0.
a
 the array whose hash value to computepublic static int hashCode(byte[] a)
The value returned by this method is the same value that would be obtained by invoking the hashCode
method on a List
containing a sequence of Byte
instances representing the
elements of a in the same order. If a is null, this method returns 0.
a
 the array whose hash value to computepublic static int hashCode(char[] a)
The value returned by this method is the same value that would be obtained by invoking the hashCode
method on a List
containing a sequence of Character
instances representing the
elements of a in the same order. If a is null, this method returns 0.
a
 the array whose hash value to computepublic static int hashCode(double[] a)
The value returned by this method is the same value that would be obtained by invoking the hashCode
method on a List
containing a sequence of Double
instances representing the
elements of a in the same order. If a is null, this method returns 0.
a
 the array whose hash value to computepublic static int hashCode(float[] a)
The value returned by this method is the same value that would be obtained by invoking the hashCode
method on a List
containing a sequence of Float
instances representing the
elements of a in the same order. If a is null, this method returns 0.
a
 the array whose hash value to computepublic static int hashCode(int[] a)
The value returned by this method is the same value that would be obtained by invoking the hashCode
method on a List
containing a sequence of Integer
instances representing the
elements of a in the same order. If a is null, this method returns 0.
a
 the array whose hash value to computepublic static int hashCode(long[] a)
The value returned by this method is the same value that would be obtained by invoking the hashCode
method on a List
containing a sequence of Long
instances representing the
elements of a in the same order. If a is null, this method returns 0.
a
 the array whose hash value to computepublic static int hashCode(Object[] a)
For any two arrays a and b such that Arrays.equals(a, b), it is also the case that Arrays.hashCode(a) == Arrays.hashCode(b).
The value returned by this method is equal to the value that would be returned by Arrays.asList(a).hashCode(), unless a is null, in which case 0 is returned.
a
 the array whose contentbased hash code to computedeepHashCode(Object[])
public static int hashCode(short[] a)
The value returned by this method is the same value that would be obtained by invoking the hashCode
method on a List
containing a sequence of Short
instances representing the
elements of a in the same order. If a is null, this method returns 0.
a
 the array whose hash value to computepublic static void sort(byte[] a)
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
a
 the array to be sortedpublic static void sort(byte[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
fromIndex
, inclusive, to the index toIndex
, exclusive. If fromIndex == toIndex
, the range
to be sorted is empty.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
a
 the array to be sortedfromIndex
 the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sortedtoIndex
 the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sortedIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndex
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0
or toIndex > a.length
public static void sort(char[] a)
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
a
 the array to be sortedpublic static void sort(char[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
fromIndex
, inclusive, to the index toIndex
, exclusive. If fromIndex == toIndex
, the range
to be sorted is empty.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
a
 the array to be sortedfromIndex
 the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sortedtoIndex
 the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sortedIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndex
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0
or toIndex > a.length
public static void sort(double[] a)
The <
relation does not provide a total order on all double values: 0.0d == 0.0d
is true
and a Double.NaN
value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value, even itself.
This method uses the total order imposed by the method Double.compareTo(java.lang.Double)
: 0.0d
is treated as less
than value 0.0d
and Double.NaN
is considered greater than any other value and all
Double.NaN
values are considered equal.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
a
 the array to be sortedpublic static void sort(double[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
fromIndex
, inclusive, to the index toIndex
, exclusive. If fromIndex == toIndex
, the range
to be sorted is empty.
The <
relation does not provide a total order on all double values: 0.0d == 0.0d
is true
and a Double.NaN
value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value, even itself.
This method uses the total order imposed by the method Double.compareTo(java.lang.Double)
: 0.0d
is treated as less
than value 0.0d
and Double.NaN
is considered greater than any other value and all
Double.NaN
values are considered equal.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
a
 the array to be sortedfromIndex
 the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sortedtoIndex
 the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sortedIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndex
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0
or toIndex > a.length
public static void sort(float[] a)
The <
relation does not provide a total order on all float values: 0.0f == 0.0f
is true
and a Float.NaN
value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value, even itself. This
method uses the total order imposed by the method Float.compareTo(java.lang.Float)
: 0.0f
is treated as less than
value 0.0f
and Float.NaN
is considered greater than any other value and all Float.NaN
values are considered equal.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
a
 the array to be sortedpublic static void sort(float[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
fromIndex
, inclusive, to the index toIndex
, exclusive. If fromIndex == toIndex
, the range
to be sorted is empty.
The <
relation does not provide a total order on all float values: 0.0f == 0.0f
is true
and a Float.NaN
value compares neither less than, greater than, nor equal to any value, even itself. This
method uses the total order imposed by the method Float.compareTo(java.lang.Float)
: 0.0f
is treated as less than
value 0.0f
and Float.NaN
is considered greater than any other value and all Float.NaN
values are considered equal.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
a
 the array to be sortedfromIndex
 the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sortedtoIndex
 the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sortedIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndex
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0
or toIndex > a.length
public static void sort(int[] a)
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
a
 the array to be sortedpublic static void sort(int[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
fromIndex
, inclusive, to the index toIndex
, exclusive. If fromIndex == toIndex
, the range
to be sorted is empty.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
a
 the array to be sortedfromIndex
 the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sortedtoIndex
 the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sortedIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndex
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0
or toIndex > a.length
public static void sort(long[] a)
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
a
 the array to be sortedpublic static void sort(long[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
fromIndex
, inclusive, to the index toIndex
, exclusive. If fromIndex == toIndex
, the range
to be sorted is empty.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
a
 the array to be sortedfromIndex
 the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sortedtoIndex
 the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sortedIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndex
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0
or toIndex > a.length
public static void sort(Object[] a)
Comparable
interface.
Furthermore, all elements in the array must be mutually comparable (that is, e1.compareTo(e2)
must
not throw a ClassCastException
for any elements e1
and e2
in the array).
This sort is guaranteed to be stable: equal elements will not be reordered as a result of the sort.
Implementation note: This implementation is a stable, adaptive, iterative mergesort that requires far fewer than n lg(n) comparisons when the input array is partially sorted, while offering the performance of a traditional mergesort when the input array is randomly ordered. If the input array is nearly sorted, the implementation requires approximately n comparisons. Temporary storage requirements vary from a small constant for nearly sorted input arrays to n/2 object references for randomly ordered input arrays.
The implementation takes equal advantage of ascending and descending order in its input array, and can take advantage of ascending and descending order in different parts of the the same input array. It is wellsuited to merging two or more sorted arrays: simply concatenate the arrays and sort the resulting array.
The implementation was adapted from Tim Peters's list sort for Python ( TimSort). It uses techiques from Peter McIlroy's "Optimistic Sorting and Information Theoretic Complexity", in Proceedings of the Fourth Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, pp 467474, January 1993.
a
 the array to be sortedClassCastException
 if the array contains elements that are not mutually comparable (for example, strings and
integers)IllegalArgumentException
 (optional) if the natural ordering of the array elements is found to violate the Comparable
contractpublic static void sort(Object[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
fromIndex
, inclusive, to index toIndex
, exclusive. (If fromIndex==toIndex
, the range to
be sorted is empty.) All elements in this range must implement the Comparable
interface. Furthermore, all
elements in this range must be mutually comparable (that is, e1.compareTo(e2)
must not throw a
ClassCastException
for any elements e1
and e2
in the array).
This sort is guaranteed to be stable: equal elements will not be reordered as a result of the sort.
Implementation note: This implementation is a stable, adaptive, iterative mergesort that requires far fewer than n lg(n) comparisons when the input array is partially sorted, while offering the performance of a traditional mergesort when the input array is randomly ordered. If the input array is nearly sorted, the implementation requires approximately n comparisons. Temporary storage requirements vary from a small constant for nearly sorted input arrays to n/2 object references for randomly ordered input arrays.
The implementation takes equal advantage of ascending and descending order in its input array, and can take advantage of ascending and descending order in different parts of the the same input array. It is wellsuited to merging two or more sorted arrays: simply concatenate the arrays and sort the resulting array.
The implementation was adapted from Tim Peters's list sort for Python ( TimSort). It uses techiques from Peter McIlroy's "Optimistic Sorting and Information Theoretic Complexity", in Proceedings of the Fourth Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, pp 467474, January 1993.
a
 the array to be sortedfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be sortedtoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be sortedIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndex
or (optional) if the natural ordering of the array elements is found
to violate the Comparable
contractArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0
or toIndex > a.length
ClassCastException
 if the array contains elements that are not mutually comparable (for example, strings and
integers).public static void sort(short[] a)
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
a
 the array to be sortedpublic static void sort(short[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex)
fromIndex
, inclusive, to the index toIndex
, exclusive. If fromIndex == toIndex
, the range
to be sorted is empty.
Implementation note: The sorting algorithm is a DualPivot Quicksort by Vladimir Yaroslavskiy, Jon Bentley, and Joshua Bloch. This algorithm offers O(n log(n)) performance on many data sets that cause other quicksorts to degrade to quadratic performance, and is typically faster than traditional (onepivot) Quicksort implementations.
a
 the array to be sortedfromIndex
 the index of the first element, inclusive, to be sortedtoIndex
 the index of the last element, exclusive, to be sortedIllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndex
ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0
or toIndex > a.length
public static <T> void sort(T[] a, @Nullable Comparator<? super T> c)
c.compare(e1, e2)
must
not throw a ClassCastException
for any elements e1
and e2
in the array).
This sort is guaranteed to be stable: equal elements will not be reordered as a result of the sort.
Implementation note: This implementation is a stable, adaptive, iterative mergesort that requires far fewer than n lg(n) comparisons when the input array is partially sorted, while offering the performance of a traditional mergesort when the input array is randomly ordered. If the input array is nearly sorted, the implementation requires approximately n comparisons. Temporary storage requirements vary from a small constant for nearly sorted input arrays to n/2 object references for randomly ordered input arrays.
The implementation takes equal advantage of ascending and descending order in its input array, and can take advantage of ascending and descending order in different parts of the the same input array. It is wellsuited to merging two or more sorted arrays: simply concatenate the arrays and sort the resulting array.
The implementation was adapted from Tim Peters's list sort for Python ( TimSort). It uses techiques from Peter McIlroy's "Optimistic Sorting and Information Theoretic Complexity", in Proceedings of the Fourth Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, pp 467474, January 1993.
a
 the array to be sortedc
 the comparator to determine the order of the array. A null
value indicates that the elements'
natural ordering should be used.ClassCastException
 if the array contains elements that are not mutually comparable using the specified comparatorIllegalArgumentException
 (optional) if the comparator is found to violate the Comparator
contractpublic static <T> void sort(T[] a, int fromIndex, int toIndex, @Nullable Comparator<? super T> c)
fromIndex
, inclusive, to index toIndex
,
exclusive. (If fromIndex==toIndex
, the range to be sorted is empty.) All elements in the range must be
mutually comparable by the specified comparator (that is, c.compare(e1, e2)
must not throw a
ClassCastException
for any elements e1
and e2
in the range).
This sort is guaranteed to be stable: equal elements will not be reordered as a result of the sort.
Implementation note: This implementation is a stable, adaptive, iterative mergesort that requires far fewer than n lg(n) comparisons when the input array is partially sorted, while offering the performance of a traditional mergesort when the input array is randomly ordered. If the input array is nearly sorted, the implementation requires approximately n comparisons. Temporary storage requirements vary from a small constant for nearly sorted input arrays to n/2 object references for randomly ordered input arrays.
The implementation takes equal advantage of ascending and descending order in its input array, and can take advantage of ascending and descending order in different parts of the the same input array. It is wellsuited to merging two or more sorted arrays: simply concatenate the arrays and sort the resulting array.
The implementation was adapted from Tim Peters's list sort for Python ( TimSort). It uses techiques from Peter McIlroy's "Optimistic Sorting and Information Theoretic Complexity", in Proceedings of the Fourth Annual ACMSIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, pp 467474, January 1993.
a
 the array to be sortedfromIndex
 the index of the first element (inclusive) to be sortedtoIndex
 the index of the last element (exclusive) to be sortedc
 the comparator to determine the order of the array. A null
value indicates that the elements'
natural ordering should be used.ClassCastException
 if the array contains elements that are not mutually comparable using the specified
comparator.IllegalArgumentException
 if fromIndex > toIndex
or (optional) if the comparator is found to violate the
Comparator
contractArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException
 if fromIndex < 0
or toIndex > a.length
public static String toString(boolean[] a)
a
 the array whose string representation to returnpublic static String toString(byte[] a)
a
 the array whose string representation to returnpublic static String toString(char[] a)
a
 the array whose string representation to returnpublic static String toString(double[] a)
a
 the array whose string representation to returnpublic static String toString(float[] a)
a
 the array whose string representation to returnpublic static String toString(int[] a)
a
 the array whose string representation to returnpublic static String toString(long[] a)
a
 the array whose string representation to returnpublic static String toString(Object[] a)
Object.toString()
method inherited from Object,
which describes their identities rather than their contents.
The value returned by this method is equal to the value that would be returned by Arrays.asList(a).toString(), unless a is null, in which case "null" is returned.
a
 the array whose string representation to returndeepToString(Object[])
public static String toString(short[] a)
a
 the array whose string representation to return